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The New Western Woman of the 1920s


 

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1919 Niklaus Stoecklin (Swiss artist, 1896-1982) Nelly
While I was looking at the change over time in the depiction of women with veils, it struck me that it was not just the clothing or the artist’s styles that had changed. It was the attitude of the women. They were more independent and more self assured. It was 1920, after all, and American women were just getting to vote in national elections for the 1st time since 1776. But the change I saw was fairly universal across Europe and the other Western countries. Here are a few of those confident new women, young and old. (Barbara Wells Sarudy )

1920 Kees van Dongen (Dutch painter, 1877-1968) Jasmy Jacob

1920 Greta Hällfors-Sipilä, (Finish artist, 1899-1974) Self Portrait

1920 Shalva Kikodze (Georgian Expressionist painter, 1894–1921) Artists’ Coffee House in Paris

1920 Walter Gramatté, (German artist, 1897-1932) Portrait Rosa Schapire

1920 William Glackens (American Ashcan School Painter, 1870-1938) Finnish Woman

1920s Marie-Louise von Motesiczky (Austrian painter, 1906-1996) Self-Portrait with Red Hat

1921 Jozsef Rippl-Ronai (Hungarian artist, 1861-1927) Zdenka Ticharich

1922 Felice Casorati (Italian Painter, 1883-1963) Portrait of Silvana Cenni

1922 Félix Vallotton (Swiss-born French painter, 1865-1925) La liseuse

1922 Ubaldo Oppi (Italian artist, 1889-1942) La giovane sposa

1923 Albert Birkle (German artist, 1900-1986) Elisabeth Starosta mit Chiffon-Bluse und Hut

1923 Tarsila do Amaral (Brazilian artist, 1886-1973) Self Portrait

1923 Hilda Carline (English artist, 1889-1950) Self-Portrait

1923 Camilo Mori (Chilean Painter, 1896-1973) The Traveller

1923 Jan Zrzavy (Czech artist, 1890-1977) Kavarna

1923 Jean Metzinger (French artist, 1883-1956) Jeune femme pensive aux roses rouges

1923 Jozsef Rippl-Ronai (Hungarian artist, 1861-1927) Terka Linzer

1923 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881-1973) Olga Pensive

1923 Rudolf Schlichter (German artist, 1890-1955) Woman with Tie

1924 Max Beckmann (German artist, 1884-1950), Portrait Minna Beckmann-Tube

1925 Georg Schrimpf (German artist, 1889-1938) Woman on a Couch

1925 Georg Tappert (German artist, 1880-1957) Girl with the Flat Hat

1925 Margaret Preston (Australian artist, 1875 – 1963) Flapper

1925 Max Pechstein (German Expressionist Painter, 1881-1955) Modellpause

1925 Jacques-Emile Blanche (French painter, 1861-1942) Mademoiselle Georgette Camille

1925 John Duncan Fergusson (Scottish artist, 1874-1961) In the Patio Margaret Morris Fergusson

1925 Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz (Polish artist, 1885-1939) Portrait of Maria Nawrocka

1925 Francisco Pons Arnau, Confidencias

1926 Rudolf Schlichter (German artist, 1890-1955) Berlin Hausvogteiplatz

1926 Otto Dix, Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia von Harden

1926 Théophile Robert (Swiss artist, 1879-1954), Lady in Black Dress

1927 Antonio Donghi (Italian Painter, 1897-196)] Signorina

1927 Christian Schad, Lotte

1927 Lasar Segall (Lithuanian-born Brazilian painter, 1891-1957) Retrato de Baby de Almeida

1928 Conrad Felixmüller, Bildnis Jutta Kirchhoff

1928 Manfred Hirzel (Polish-born German painter, 1905-1932). Portrait of Rosi Mein

1928 Herbert Ploberger, Vor dem Schaufenster

1928 Meredith Frampton (British Art Deco Painter, 1894-1984) Marguerite Kelsey

1929 Alexander Kanoldt (German painter, 1881-1939) The Red Belt

1929 Marcel Ronay (Austrian artist, 1910-1998) Sailor and Girl

1929 Niklaus Stoecklin (Swiss artist, 1896-1982) Tatjana Barbakoff

1929 Rudolf Schlichter (German artist, 1890-1955) Karola Neher

1929 Vilmos Aba-Novák (Hungarian artist, 1894-1941) Laura

Fritz Reusing (German artist, 1874-1957) Portrait of a Smoking Lady 1927

Model, artist, muse, lover, & mother of an artist Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938)


Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) c 1889

2009 Exhibit at the Pinacothéque de Paris

Mother Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) and Son Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon (1883-1955) c 1889
In 2009, the Pinacothéque de Paris presented an exhibit of paintings by mother & son artists Suzanne Valadon (1865–1938) & Maurice Valadon Utrillo (1883-1955). Theirs is a complicated tale.

Suzanne Valadon was born Marie-Clémentine Valadon in France.

Mother Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) and Son Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon (1883-1955)
She was the daughter of an unmarried laundress & was raised in Paris in bleak, lonely, & unaffectionate circumstances.

Photo of Suzanne Valadon
She apparently taught herself to draw by age 9. As a very young woman she worked as a laundress & a dressmaker’s assistant.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) 1926
Suzanne Valadon became a circus acrobat at the age of 15, but a year later, a fall from a trapeze ended that career aspiration.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon (1883-1955)
A strikingly beautiful girl, she found work as an artists’ model to observe & learn the artists’ techniques.

[Barbara Wells Sarudy ]

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Self Portrait 1883
In the Montmartre quarter of Paris, she agressively pursued her interest in art, first working as a model for artists, observing & learning their techniques, before becoming a noted painter herself.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) Profile of Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) 1885
In order to separate the painter from the model, Valadon, whose given name was Marie-Clementine, worked as a model using the name Maria. As an artist, she signed her work Suzanne Valadon. She apparently adopted the new name to delineate her new & separate role as an artist.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) The Bathers, 1885–87
She modeled for Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (who gave her painting lessons), Amedeo Modigliani, Marcel Leprin, Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, & Pierre-Cécile Puvis de Chavannes.

Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre (1824-98) Untitled painting of Suzanne Valadon 1880
She is known to have had affairs with serveral of these artists, including Lautrec, Renoir, and Chavannes.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Self Portrait 1898
Although she could not afford formal classes, Valadon learned readily & absorbed the techniques of the painters around her.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Portrait of her Son Maurice Utrillo (1883-1955), her Mother & his Grandmother and his Dog, 1910
Toulouse-Lautrec, who was romantically involved with Suzanne, brought her work to the attention of Edgar Degas.

Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Le Tab model Suzanne Valadon
Degas talked with her at great length and bought one of her paintings the day they first met. He consistantly encouraged her to develop her artistic talent.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Self Portrait 1917
Degas also helped her learn, teaching her drawing and etching techniques. At age 18, she became the mother of painter Maurice Valadon Utrillo, his father remains unknown.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Self Portrait 1918
By the early 1890s, she had became close friends with the famous Edgar Degas who, impressed with her bold line drawings & fine paintings, continued to purchase her work & encourage her efforts. They remained close friends until his death.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Self Portrait
Valadon frequented the bars & taverns of Paris along with her fellow painters, who would come and go as lovers, & a rejected Toulouse-Lautrec painted her with a hangover.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Self Portrait
A free spirit in many respects, she would wear a corsage of carrots, kept a goat at her studio to “eat up her bad drawings”, & fed caviar (rather than meat) to her “good Catholic” cats on Fridays.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Said to be Self Portrait
In 1894, Valadon became the 1st woman painter admitted to the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. All the artists knew her and her work.
Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Said to be Self Portrait 1934
Despite her financial success & the recognition gained for her artistic achievements, her fame was eclipsed by that of her son. She gave birth to the boy in 1883, & never divulging the identity of his father, she named him Maurice Valadon. He later adopted the paternal family name of a close friend of his mother, Miguel Utrillo y Morlius, who owned the Auberge du Clou, a tavern frequented by the residents, shop owners, workers, & artists of Montmartre.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) City Dance (Suzanne Valadon and Eugène Pierre Lestringuez) 1883
After being taught to paint & mentored by his mother, as Maurice Utrillo, he became one of Montmartre’s best-known street scene artists.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) Dance at Bougival (Suzanne Valadon and Paul Lhote) 1883
Among her works is a portrait of the composer Erik Satie, with whom she had a six-month affair in 1893. A smitten Satie proposed marriage after their first night together.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Portrait of Composer Erik Satie (1866-1925) c.1892
For Satie, the intimacy of his relationship with Valadon would be the only one of its kind in his life, leaving him at its end, he said, with “nothing but an icy loneliness that fills the head with emptiness & the heart with sadness.”

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Portrait of Suzanne Valadon
In 1896, she married Paul Mousis; & the financial support of her well-to-do investor & banker husband allowed her to work full-time as an artist.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) Girl Braiding Her Hair Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) 1885
Valadon painted still life, portraits, floral art, & landscapes that are noted for their strong composition & vibrant colors.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Portrait of Suzanne Valadon
For her portraits, she disregarded convention painting both beautiful & homely women, clothed & nude, from working class communities.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) Portrait of Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) 1885
Her use of color and her bold representations of female sexuality challenged the traditional male constructions of femininity. The women in her portraits would not be passive sexual objects. They would not assume conventional, seductive poses.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Portrait of Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) The Hangover 1888
A perfectionist, she worked on some of her oil paintings for up to 13 years, before showing them publically.

Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen (1859-1923), Suzanne Valadon
Valadon’s 1896 marriage to stockbroker Paul Mousis ended when, in 1909, she left him for a painter half her age, André Utter (1886–1948), who was a friend of her son Maurice Utrillo. But that marriage did not run smoothly either.

Amedeo Modigliani (1884-1920) Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938)
Her first one-person show, after leaving her stockbroker husband, seems to have taken place in 1911, although some claim that the year was 1915. This public exhibit of Valadon’s paintings attracted critical acclaim & numerous patrons.
Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon (1883-1955) Portrait of His Mother Suzanne Valadon By the end of the 1st World War, she achieved critical & financial success. She continued to exhibit regularly, reaching the peak of her fame in the 1920s. Suzanne Valadon had 4 major retrospective exhibitions during her lifetime.

Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen (1859-1923), Suzanne Valadon
In her final years she was usually estranged from both Utter & Utrillo, & her health was ruined by the excesses of her life. Suzanne Valadon died on 7 April 1938, & in attendance at her funeral were her friends & colleagues, Andre Derain, Pablo Picasso, & Georges Braque.

Marcel Leprin (1891-1933) Suzanne Valadon and her Cat

Mother Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) and Son Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon (1883-1955)

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Self Portrait 1931

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938)

Spanish Surrealist Painter Joan Miro [1893-1983]


1923 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Catalan Landscape (The Hunter)

1924 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Landscape

1924 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Maternity

1924 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Bouquet of Flowers. Smile of My Blond. (Sourire de ma blonde)

1924 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Catalan Peasant with a Guitar

1924 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Hermitage

1925 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Photo This is the Color of My Dreams.

1925 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Bathing Woman

1925 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Dancer

1925 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Siesta

1925 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Stars in Snails’ Sexes

1925 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) The Birth of the World

1925 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Untitled

1926 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Dog Barking at the Moon

1926 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Person Throwing a Stone at a Bird

1927 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Landscape (The Hare)

1927 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) The Circus House

1927 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Painting

1933 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Drawing-Collage with a Hat

1933 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Composition

1933 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Painting

1933 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Painting

1934 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Swallow Love

1940 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) The Nightingale’s Song at Midnight and the Morning Rain

1940 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Constellation The Morning Star

1941 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Ciphers and Constellations, in Love with a Woman

1945 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) The Bull Fight

1946 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Women and Birds at Sunrise

1950 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Painting

1950 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Woman in Front of the Sun

1961 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Blue II

1961 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Blue III

1964 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) Constellation Awakening at Dawn

1967 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) The Gold of the Azure

1967 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) The Lark’s Wing, Encircled with Golden Blue, Rejoins the Heart of the Poppy Sleeping on a Diamond-Studded Meadow

1973 Joan Miro (Spanish Surrealist Painter and Sculptor, 1893-1983) May 1968

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1880-1938


1906 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Doris with a Ruffled Collar

1909 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Dodo with a Japanese Umbrella
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938) was one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or “The Bridge”, a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism in 20th century art. He volunteered for German army service in the First World War, but soon suffered a breakdown & was discharged. In 1933, his work was branded as “degenerate” by the Nazis. In 1937, he was asked for his resignation from the Berlin Academy of Arts, & over 600 of his works were confiscated from public museums in Germany & were sold or destroyed. In 1938, he committed suicide.

1909-10 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Marzella

1910 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Self Portrait with Model

1910 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938)

1910 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Artiste Marcella

1910 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Kokottenkopf with Feathered Hat

1911 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Dodo with a Big Feather Hat

1911 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Portrait of a Woman

1912 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Lady in the Park

1913 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Erna Schilling

1913 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Five Women at the Street

1913 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Japanese Parasol

1913 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Street, Berlin

1913 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Two Women with Basin

1913 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Woman in a Green Blouse

1913-14 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Berlin Street Scene

1913-20 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Woman before a Mirror

1914 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Gerda

1914 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Dancing Couple

1914 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Portrait of Gerda

1914 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) The Garden Cafe

1915 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Erna with Cigarette

1916 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Königstein with Red Church

1918 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Pink Roses

1922 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Sunday in the Alps

1926 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Street Scene in front of a Barbershop

1927 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) The Lovers

1927 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Women on Street

1927-29 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Two Women in a Cafe

1928-29 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Sad Female Head

1930 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Lovers (The Kiss)

1932-33 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Two Acrobats

The Evolution of Pablo Picasso’s Portraits of Women


1896 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of the Artist’s Mother.
Pablo Picasso, one of the dominant & most influential artists of the 20th century, was born in Malaga, Spain, on October 25th in 1881.

1901 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Woman in a Plummed Hat

1903 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of a Young Woman.
Picasso’s father, a professor of drawing, groomed his son for a career in academic art. Picasso had his 1st exhibit at age 13 & later quit art school; so he could experiment full-time with modern art styles.

1904 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Woman with a Crow.
He went to Paris for the first time in 1900, & by 1901, he was exhibiting at a gallery on Paris’ rue Lafitte, a street known for its prestigious art galleries. The precocious 19-year-old Spaniard was at the time a relative unknown outside Barcelona, but he had already produced hundreds of paintings. Winning favorable French reviews, he stayed in Paris for the rest of the year & later returned to the city to settle permanently.

Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Lady with a Fan – Artist model Fernande Olivier (1881-1966)
The work of Picasso, more than 50,000 paintings, drawings, engravings, sculptures, & ceramics produced over 80 years, is described in a series of overlapping periods. His first notable period–the “blue period”-began shortly after his first Paris exhibit. In these works, Picasso often painted in blue tones to evoke the melancholy world of the poor.

Picasso’s Model 1904-1912 Fernande Olivier (1881-1966) was reportedly Picasso’s first known long-term relationship & subject of many of Picasso’s Rose Period paintings (1905-07). Picasso met her after settling in Paris in 1904. Although Fernande was married at the time, she stayed with Picasso for 7 years. Fernande modeled for other artists between 1900 & 1905, when she moved in with Picasso, who would not allow her to model for other artists.
The blue period was followed by the “rose period,” in which he often depicted circus scenes, & sculptures. In 1907, Picasso painted the groundbreaking work Les Demoiselles d’Avignon , which, with its fragmented & distorted representation of the human form, broke from previous European art. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon demonstrated the influence on Picasso of both African mask art & Paul Cezanne & is seen as a forerunner of the Cubist movement, attributed to Picasso & the French painter Georges Braque in 1909.

1907 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Nude Half Length
In Cubism, which is divided into two phases, analytical & synthetic, Picasso & Braque established the concept that artwork need not represent reality to have artistic value. Picasso & Braque’s Cubist experiments also resulted in several new artistic techniques, including collage.

1909 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Woman and Pears Fernande Olivier
After Cubism, Picasso explored classical & Mediterranean themes, & images of violence & anguish increasingly appeared in his work. During WWII, Picasso remained in Paris, fervently opposed to fascism later joining the French Communist Party.

1906 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of Gertrude Stein.
Picasso’s work after World War II is less studied than his earlier creations, but he continued to work feverishly & enjoyed commercial & critical success. He produced fantastical works, experimented with ceramics, & painted variations on the works of other masters in the history of art.

Fernande left Picasso in 1912, after Picasso took an interest in Marcelle Humbert, known as Eva Gouel (1885-1915). When Picasso’s father died in May of 1913, Eva moved in with him. Picasso was devastated by her early death in 1915. However, during Eva’s sickness, Picasso began a relationship with young Gaby Lespinasse, who was  thought to have danced in the Montparnasse cabaret. Her lover was Herbert Lespinasse, whom she subsequently married, & who was one of the creators of St Tropez.
Known for his intense personality, he had a complex series of overlapping wives & lovers during his lifetime. He continued to produce art & love women with undiminished force until his death in 1973, at the age of 91.

Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) 1912-1915 Eva – Marcelle Humbert (Eva Gouel 1885-1915)

In 1917, Picasso met Russian ballerina Olga Khokhlova (1891-1955) while designing the ballet “Parade” in Rome, to be performed by the Ballet Russe. Picasso & Olga Khokhlova married in the Russian Orthodox church in Paris in 1918.

1917 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of his wife Olga in Armchair.

1922 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of Mme Olga Picasso.

1921-22 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Mother and Child.

1922 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) The Classical Head.

1923 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Olga Koklova, Picasso’s First Wife.

1923 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Picasso’s Mother.

1923 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Madame Olga Picasso.

Marie-Therese Walter. In 1927, Picasso met Marie-Therese Walter. She was 17, while Picasso was about 42 years old. At that time, Picasso was married to Olga with whom he had a 4-year-old son with. In 1935, Marie-Thérèse Walter became pregnant. When Picasso’s wife, Olga, learned of her husband’s pregnant mistress, Olga moved to south France. Olga & Picasso never got a divorce; because Picasso wanted to avoid the even division of property dictated by French law. They lived separately until her death in 1954.

Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Marie-Thérèse Walter in Le Rêve (The Dream), 1932.

Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Marie-Therese

Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Woman with Book 1932

1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Marie-Therese Walter.

1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Marie-Therese Walter.

1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Marie-Therese Walter

1936 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Marie-Therese Walter.

1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Marie-Therese Walter

1938 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Maya with Dolls. This is a painting of Picasso & Marie’s daughter, María de la Concepción, called Maya, born in 1935. Marie & Maya stayed with Picasso at Juan-les-Pins in the South of France from March 25 to May 14 in 1936, Picasso visited on the weekends & some weekdays to play with his daughter. Maya also modelled for some of his paintings, including Maya with Doll. Picasso supported Marie & Maya financially, but he never married Marie.

In 1936, Pablo Picasso met Dora Maar (Henriette Théodora Markovich 1907-1997).  She was the photographer who documented Picasso’s 1937 Spanish Civil War painting Guernica. She became Picasso’s lover from 1936 through April, 1944. Picasso referred to Dora as his “private muse.”

1941 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Dora Maar.

Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Dora Maar

1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Dora Maar.

1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of Dora Maar with a Crown of Flowers

1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of Dora Maar.

1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Lee Miller. Picasso’s model here was Elizabeth ‘Lee’ Miller, Lady Penrose ( 1907–1977) a US photographer & favorite of the surrealists in Paris including Man Ray, Pablo Picasso, Paul Éluard, & Jean Cocteau..

1937 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Nusch Éluard. Model Éluard was one of the most beloved figures of the Surrealists. As wife of Paul Éluard, she became the muse of Picasso, Man Ray, René Magritte, and Joan Miró.

1938 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Nusch Éluard.

1938 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Nusch Éluard.

1938 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of a Young Girl.

1938 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of a Young Girl.

1938 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of a Young Girl.

1938 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of a Young Girl.

1939 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Woman in a Stripped Hat.

1939 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Young Girl Struck by Sadness.

1939 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Young Tormented Girl.

1946 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of Françoise.

In 1943, Picasso, at age 62, began an affair with young art student Francoise Gilot (born in 1921). Dora left him in 1944 because of his infidelity. Picasso & Francoise had 2 children – Claude (1947) & Paloma (1949). Gilot, frustrated with Picasso’s relationships with other woman & his abusive nature, left him in 1953. In 1970, she married American physician-researcher Jonas Salk.

Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) 1951-1953 Genevieve Laporte (1927-) In 1944, 17-year old Genevieve Laporte interviewed Picasso for a school newspaper. Years later in 1951, Picasso began an affair with the then-24 year old. The relationship started when Laporte visited the 70-year old Picasso at his studio, while he was still living with Françoise Gilot. That summer of 1951, Picasso took Laporte to St Tropez, leaving Françoise behind. After declining Picasso’s invitation to move in with him, she left him in 1953, at the same time that Françoise left the artist.

Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) with Sylvette David (Lydia Corbett). In 1954, Sylvett David met Pablo Picasso on the Riviera. Following the artist’s separation from Françoise Gilot, she became the model for a cycle of some 40 paintings & drawings as well as many ceramics. The “Heads of Sylvette”, a series of folded metal sculptures which Picasso developed at this time, marked the next major innovation in his sculptural work.

Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) 1953-1973 Jacqueline Roque (1926 -1986) Second Wife. In 1953, Picasso met Jacqueline Roque (1926 -1986) at the Madoura Pottery, where Picasso created his ceramics.  In 1961, when Picasso was 79, she became his 2nd wife.   Picasso created many images of  Jacqueline, in one year painting over 70 portraits of her. [Barbara Wells Sarudy ]

1954 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline Rocque.

1954 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline Rocque.

1954 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline with Crossed Hands.

1954 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline with Flowers.

1954 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline Rocque.

1954 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline Rocque.

1956 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline in the Studio.

1956 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline in Studio.

1958 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline Rocque.

1960 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Portrait of a Sitting Woman.

1960 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881–1973) Jacqueline.

Paula Modersohn-Becker 1876-1907


Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Kopf eines jungen Maedchens mit Perlenkette in Profil nach rechts, 1901

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Self Portrait on 6th Wedding Anniversary
“The young German painter Paula Modersohn-Becker painted this, one of her most subtle and emotionally complex self-portraits, on the occasion of her sixth wedding anniversary, as she has written in olive-green paint in the lower right-hand corner of the canvas. She has signed it “PB”, for Paula Becker, her maiden name, leaving out the Modersohn, which she had acquired on marriage.
“Paula Modersohn-Becker was 30 when she painted this self-portrait on 25 May 1906. She had recently left her native Germany to live and work in Paris. What was extraordinary about this move was that, at the time, she was married to Otto Modersohn, an academic painter some 10 years her senior, whom she had met when she lived in an artist’s colony at Worpswede, on the moors in northern Germany, near Bremen.

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Baby and Mother’s Hand
“There, her fellow-artists, encouraged by Julius Langbehn’s eccentric and now notorious book, Rembrandt as Educator, along with their interest in Nietzsche, Zola, Rembrandt and Drer, idealistically embraced nature, the purity of youth and the simplicity of peasant life.

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Young Girl
“In Worpswede, Paula not only came under Modersohn’s influence but also fell in love with the dark moors and the peasants who inhabited them, making their modest living from cutting peat. Yet she was soon to realise, rather like Nora in Ibsen’s A Doll’s House, that she had to break free of the shackles of conventional matrimony in order to develop as a serious painter.

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Farm Child on Cushions 1904
“So, very unusually for a young, well-bred woman of that period, she abandoned her husband, much against his wishes, to go to Paris to paint. There she joined her close friend, the sculptor Clara Westhoff, with whom she shared a complex relationship with the German poet Rainer Maria Rilke. This painting, then, is not simply a nude self-portrait but a declaration of liberation. Not only from the ties and duties of marriage, but also from the constraints and expectations of Paula’s time and class.

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) The Pram
“As she wrote in a letter to Rilke before leaving for Paris: ‘I am myself…’ For she has painted herself as blooming and quietly exhalant, set against a dappled surround of spring leaf-green. Here she is her own woman, on the brink of fulfilling her true potential, at one with herself.

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Elsbeth 1902
“When she arrived in Paris, she wrote: ‘Now I have left Otto Modersohn, I stand between my old life and my new one. What will happen in my new life? And how shall I develop in my new life? Everything must happen now.’

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Sleeping Child
“In fact, Paula was not pregnant in this painting. Only the previous month she had written that she did not want to have a child yet, particularly with Otto. The painting, then, is a metaphor for how she felt about herself as a young artist: fecund, ripe, able for the first time in her life to create and paint freely in the manner that she wished. What she is about to give birth to is not a child but her mature, independent, artistic self.

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Head of a Girl 1905
“Traditionally, nude portraits of women had been painted for the delectation of the male gaze, but here Paula creates a new construct: a woman who is able to nurture herself outside the trappings of marriage, who does not need a man to be fulfilled. For there had always been an unequal relationship between the male painter (however radical and avant-garde) and his model and muse. Women were sex objects, and models were purchased in a financial exchange that, by definition, privileged the male painter. In this portrait, Modersohn-Becker confounded this norm simply by painting herself.

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Young Girl
“Her nudity is confident and unabashed. Implicit is a level of self- awareness, for Paula would not have been unfamiliar with the debates about the unconscious that were raging in Vienna around Freud, and beginning to infiltrate both art and literature.

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Head of a Girl Sitting on a Chair
“The solid monumentality of the pose, the flattened forms and stripping away of detail indicate her awareness of both Gauguin and Cezanne, whose work she discovered in Paris between 1899 and 1906. Both of these artists had a huge effect on their peers.

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Elsbeth in the Garden 1902
“The mask-like features and Paula’s easy, natural sexuality show not only a familiarity with their work but also an awareness of the “primitive” art that had so inspired them and other painters of the time, from Nolde to Picasso. She stands there in her amber necklace, just as Gauguin might have portrayed one of his Tahitian girls garlanded with tropical flowers. For, like Gauguin, she was seeking the expression of some primordial power in the natural world.

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Girl with Black Hat

“Yet, for Paula Modersohn-Becker, in this self-portrait and its companion painting, Self-Portrait with Amber Necklace (1906), there is no subtext of violence or the sexual exploitation and appropriation that can be read into some of Gauguin’s colonised Tahitian nudes with their blank expressions or downcast eyes.

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) A Girl’s Head in front of a Window 1906
“What she portrays is the solid dignity of the earth-mother, the liberated woman painted with a direct and fearless gaze. She gives birth to the expression of her new fearless, artistic self. She was among the very first women painters to explore these concerns. That she collapsed and died just weeks after the birth of her daughter, a mere year later, in 1907, gives the painting a haunting poignancy.

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907)Old Peasant Woman 1905
“Born in Dresden in 1876, Paula Modersohn-Becker was 12 when her family moved to Bremen. In 1892, she received her first drawing instruction, and a year later came to England to learn English. In 1897, she saw an exhibition at Bremen’s Kunsthalle by the members of the “Worpsweders” commune, artists who lived on the moors outside Bremen and took the French Barbizon school as their model, rejecting city life.

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) The Old Farmer 1903
“In 1896, she studied at the Society of Berlin Women Artists. She became close friends with the poet Rainer Maria Rilke, but married Otto Modersohn and settled in Worpswede. She later left him to live and work in Paris, where she immersed herself in French art. A reconciliation of sorts led her back to Worpswede, where, in 1907, aged 31, she died of an embolism after the birth of her daughter”…her only child.” [Barbara Wells Sarudy ]

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Old Blind Woman 1899

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Old Woman with Handkerchief 1903

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Young Girl with Straw Hat and Flower in her Hand 1902

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Nursing Mother 1902

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Martha Vogeler

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Tow Children Sitting in a Meadow

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Child’s Head with White Cloth 1907
Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907) Woman with Child 1906

Marc Chagall & His Own Words


Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Lovers in the Moonlight
Marc Chagall (1887-1985), a Russian–French artist, was one of the most successful artists of the 20th century. He created a unique career in nearly every artistic medium, including paintings, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramics, tapestries & fine art prints. Chagall’s haunting, exuberant, & poetic images enjoy universal appeal.

1914 Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Blue Lovers
Only love interests me, and I am only in contact with things that revolve around love. Chagall

1914 Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Green Lovers
When I am finishing a picture, I hold some God-made object up to it – a rock, a flower, the branch of a tree or my hand – as a final test. If the painting stands up beside a thing man cannot make, the painting is authentic. If there’s a clash between the two, it’s bad art. Chagall

1915 Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Birthday
Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Lovers in Pink 1913

Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Grey Lovers
Art is the increasing effort to compete with the beauty of flowers – and never succeeding.

In our life there is a single color, as on an artist’s palette, which provides the meaning of life and art. It is the color of love. Chagall

1954 Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Le Champ de Mars
Art seems to me to be above all a state of soul. All souls are sacred… Chagall

1958 Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Big Sun
All our interior world is reality, and that, perhaps, more so than our apparent world. Chagall

Marc Chagall (1887-1985) The Lovers
If I create from the heart, nearly everything works; if from the head, almost nothing. Chagall

Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Lovers
One cannot be precise, and still be true. Chagall

1969 Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Artist and His Love
The habit of ignoring Nature is deeply implanted in our times. This attitude reminds me of people who never look you in the eye; I find them disturbing and always have to look away. Chagall

Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Couple Flying over Village
Mine alone is the country of my soul. Chagall

Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Equestrian 1931

Gustav Klimt


Gustav Klimt wurde als Sohn des Ziseleurs Ernst Klimt und seiner Frau Anna, geborene Finster, am 14. Juli 1862 in Baumgarten bei Wien geboren.

Der österreichische Maler und Zeichner war ein Hauptvertreter der Wiener Jugendstilmalerei. Er war zu Lebzeiten einer der umstrittensten, aber auch beliebtesten Künstler. Im Ausgang des 19. Jahrhunderts entwickelte Gustav Klimt einen neuen Stil im flächig ornamentalen dekorativen Charakter. Dabei brachte der Künstler natürliche Details mit abstrakten farbigen und mosaikartigen Flächenmuster zusammen. 1906 begann die “goldene Periode” von Klimt. In dieser Zeit realisierte Klimmt einen Ausdruckssprache, die an frühchristliche Mosaikarbeiten und Ikonen anschloss. 1897 war er einer der Mitbegründer der Wiener Künstlergruppe “Secession”. Neben seinen rund 2.000 Zeichnungen schuf Gustav Klimt Frauenbildnisse mit erotischer Ausstrahlung und Deckengemälde…

In den Jahren von 1876 bis 1883 studierte Gustav Klimt an der Kunstgewerbeschule in Wien. Ein Stipendium ermöglichte ihm diese Ausbildung. Sein Bruder besuchte die gleiche Schule. Zusammen und mit Franz Matsch realisierten sie in den Jahren 1880 bis 1883 Auftragsarbeiten und malten Decken- und Theaterdekorationen in Wien, Karlsbad und Reichenberg. 1883 eröffneten die drei ein Atelier in Wien und nahmen unter anderem Auftragsarbeiten an. So arbeiteten sie am Nationaltheater in Bukarest, oder sie gestalteten die Decken der Hermesvilla der österreichischen Kaiserin Elisabeth. 1886 folgte ein Auftrag am Wiener Burgtheater. Zwei Jahre später waren die Arbeiten abgeschlossen, und die Künstler wurden von Kaiser Franz Joseph I. mit dem Goldenen Verdienstkreuz für Kunst geehrt.
In dieser Zeit wandte sich Klimt der Monumentalmalerei zu. 1889 unternahm Gustav Klimt eine Europareise, unter anderem mit den Stationen Triest, Venedig und München. Besonders in der Zeit zwischen 1890 und 1900 war der Künstler auf der Suche nach seiner individuellen Ausdruckskraft. Dabei löste er sich immer mehr vom akademischen Stil. 1891 schloss er sich der “Genossenschaft bildender Künstler Wiens” an. Damit begab er sich zwischen die Fronten von traditionsbewussten Anhängern und den Avantgardisten. In dieser Zeit machte er die Bekanntschaft von Emilie Flöge. Aus der Verbindung entwickelt sich eine Freundschaft. Gustav Klimt ist Vater von mehreren unehelichen Kindern, die er mit seinen Modellen hatte.

Im Jahr 1892 starb sein Bruder. Klimt löste die Atelierverbindung zu Franz Matsch. Zwei Jahre später erhielten die beiden den Auftrag die Deckendekoration der “Aula Magna” an der Wiener Universität zu entwerfen. 1897 war Klimt einer der Mitbegründer der Wiener Künstlergruppe “Secession”. Er war auch ihr erster Präsident. Die Ziele der Gruppe waren die Unabhängigkeit der Kunst und Künstler vor allen Dingen von staatlichen Vorgaben. Die Zeitschrift “Ver Sacrum” wurde das Medium der Bewegung, in dem die “Secessions”-Künstler ihre Arbeiten und ihre Ziele vorstellten. In den folgenden Jahren engagierte sich Klimmt stark für die Künstlervereinigung. In der Zeit von 1898 bis 1900 fand ein Wechsel in der Maltechnik des Künstlers statt.

Klimt wandte sich einem expressionistischen Stil mit flächig-ornamentalem Charakter zu. 1900 wurde das Werk “Philosophie”, eines von drei Deckenbilder in der Wiener Universität, mit der Goldmedaille ausgezeichnet. Dennoch stießen die Gemälde intern auf die Kritik der Professoren, die sie als hässlich und pornographisch beurteilten. 1902 schuf Klimt den “Beethovenfries” zu Max Klinger “Beethovenstatue”. Klimts Arbeit rief polemische Reaktionen hervor. Im gleichen Jahr traf er auf den bedeutenden französischen Bildhauer Auguste Rodin, der sich beeindruckt von Klimts “Beethovenfries” zeigte. Im Jahr darauf unternahm der Künstler eine Italienreise nach Ravenna, Venedig und Florenz. Die Diskussion zwischen Naturalisten und Stilisten in der “Secession” führte zur 1905 Spaltung der Gruppe.

Klimt und andere Künstler traten daraufhin aus. Die konträren Reaktionen auf seine Fakultätsbilder der Wiener Universität nahmen zu. Als Folge davon hielt Klimt die Werke zurück und zahlte das Honorar zurück. Im Jahr darauf begann die “goldene Periode” von Klimt. Das Bild mit dem Titel “Fritza Riedler” entstand und machte den Anfang dazu. Diese Phase gipfelte in dem Bild “Der Kuss”. In dieser Zeit realisierte Klimmt einen Ausdruckssprache, die an frühchristliche Mosaikarbeiten und Ikonen anschloss. Die Anregungen dazu holte sich der Künstler in Italien. In dieser Periode entstanden zahlreiche Frauen-Bildnisse mit erotischem Charakter und dokumentieren Klimts Hingabe zum weiblichen Geschlecht. 1907 gab es die erste Kontakte mit dem österreichischen Maler und Zeichner Egon Schiele.
Der expressionistische Künstler ließ sich von Klimts Werk maßgeblich inspirieren. In den beiden Jahren 1908 und 1909 organisierte Klimt die “Kunstschau”. 1911 wurde der Künstler auf der Internationalen Kunstausstellung in Rom für sein Bild “Tod und Leben” mit dem ersten Preis bedacht. Andererseits stand Klimts Stil aber auch oft im Lichte der Kritik. Er brachte seine Bilder in Einklang mit den Kompositionen von Gustav Mahler und den psychoanalytischen Thesen von Sigmund Freud. Zusammen mit Egon Schiele, Oskar Kokoschka und Anton Faistauer beteiligte sich Klimt an der Ausstellung des “Bundes Österreichischer Künstler”, die von der Berliner “Secession” organisiert wurde. 1917 wurde Gustav Klimt Ehrenmitglied der Akademien der Bildenden Künste in Wien und München.
Gustav Klimt starb am 6. Februar 1918 in Wien.

 

Tamara de Lempicka


Tamara de Lempicka (* 16. Mai 1898 in St. Petersburg als Tamara Gorska  nach anderen Quellen evtl. in Warschau als Maria Górska16. März 1980 in Cuernavaca, Mexiko) war eine polnische Malerin des Art Déco.

Prägend für Lempickas spätere künstlerische Entwicklung war der Kontakt mit der Malerei der Renaissance auf einer Reise nach Italien im Jahr 1911. Nach der Scheidung ihrer Eltern im Jahre 1912 schickte ihre Großmutter sie in eine Schule nach Lausanne, Schweiz. 1916 heiratete sie den Anwalt Tadeusz Lempicki (1888-1951) in Sankt Petersburg, Russland, wo sie fortan lebte. Nach der Oktoberrevolution 1917 wurde ihr Ehemann verhaftet. Tamara flüchtete nach Kopenhagen. Ihr Ehemann folgte ihr nach seiner Freilassung. Gemeinsam gingen sie 1918 nach Paris. Hier wurde 1920 ihre Tochter Kizette geboren. Da es ihrem Mann nicht gelang, eine passende Anstellung zu finden, beschloss Lempicka, den Lebensunterhalt durch Malerei zu verdienen. Sie setzte ihr in St. Petersburg begonnenes Kunststudium fort und wurde Schülerin von Maurice Denis und André Lhote.

Als 1925 mit der Exposition internationale des Arts Décoratifs et industriels modernes die erste und für den Stilbegriff namensgebende Art-Déco-Ausstellung stattfand, war Tamara de Lempicka mit einigen Bildern vertreten und erregte erstmals das Interesse eines breiten Publikums. Binnen kurzer Zeit wurde sie zu einer der gefragtesten Künstlerinnen ihrer Zeit. Ihre Bilder kombinieren kühle, an Renaissancebilder erinnernde Sachlichkeit mit sinnlicher Schwüle. Sie selbst inszenierte sich bis ins Kleinste als Diva, hatte eine Reihe von Affären und bezog in Paris (7 rue Méchain) ein luxuriöses Appartement, das ihr als Salon, Wohnung und Atelier diente. Sie verkehrte hauptsächlich in Hautevolee-Kreisen. 1928 ließ sie sich von ihrem Mann scheiden, 1934 heiratete sie auf einer Seereise den ungarischen verwitweten Industriellen Raoul Baron Kuffner de Diószegh (Wien 1886–1961).

Mitte der 1930er Jahre litt Lempicka an Depressionen, ihr Schaffen versiegte. 1939 blieb die Familie Lempicka-Kuffner nach einem Urlaub in den USA, so die offizielle Version. Tatsächlich war die Übersiedlung von langer Hand geplant, ihr Ehemann Baron Raoul von Kuffner ließ heimlich sein Anwesen in Ungarn räumen und brachte Antiquitäten und Wertgegenstände nach Amerika. Tamara de Lempicka lebte zunächst in Los Angeles, siedelte später nach New York über. Bis 1974 wohnte sie in Houston, in der Nähe ihrer Tochter Kizette Foxhall. Danach siedelte sie nach Mexiko über.

Ab den 1950er Jahren, als die abstrakte Malerei sich endgültig durchsetzte, wurde es um die Art-Déco-Künstlerin still. Sie versuchte sich zwar auch in der abstrakten Malerei, konnte sich jedoch nicht in gleicher Weise durchsetzen wie zu den Hochzeiten des Art Déco in den 1920er und 1930er Jahren. Erst gegen Ende der 1960er Jahre setzte ein erneutes Interesse an ihren Werken ein.

1980 starb Tamara de Lempicka in Mexiko. Ihre Asche wurde über dem Popocatépetl ausgestreut.

Russian Christmas fortune telling & Fortune Tellers thru the ages


Russian Mykola Pymonenko (Russian artist, 1862-1912), Yuletide Fortune Tellers  1888
In Russia, there is a 40-day Lent preceding Christmas Day (January 7), when many practicing Christians do not eat any meat. The Christmas Lent period ends with the 1st star in the night sky on January 6 – a symbol of Jesus Christ’s birth. Christmas Eve marks the start of an old Slavic holiday, Svyatki, which lasts until January 19, the day Russian Orthodox Epiphany is celebrated. During this 2-week period old traditions of fortune telling & caroling are carried on by many residents. Some cook vareniki, a kind of stuffed dumplings filled with mushrooms & potatoes plus “telling objects” – tomatoes for love; coins for wealth; a bay leaves for jobs & fame; rings for weddings; & thread for travel. Some drop melting wax into water & use the resulting shapes to predict the future.  Some set fire to a crumpled piece of paper using the burnt remains to fortell coming events. I will begin this post with a few Russian fortune telling paintings & then look chronologically at fortune tellers from a variety of countries.

Orest Kiprensky (Russian artist, 1782-1836) Fortune Teller with a Candle 1828

Konstantin Makovsky (Russian artist, 1839-1915) Christmas Fortune Telling

Mikhail Vrubel (Russian painter, 1856-1910) The Fortune Teller

Lucas Van Leiden (Dutch painter, 1494-1533) The Fortune Teller

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (Italian painter, 1573-1610) Fortune teller

Jacob Van Velsen (Dutch artist, 1597-1656) The Fortune Teller

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (Italian painter, 1573-1610) Fortune teller II

Jean Valentin de Boulogne (French artist, 1591-1632) Fortune Teller Detail

Nicolas Régnier (Flemish painter, 1591–1667) Cardsharps and Fortune Teller Detail

Nicolas Régnier (Flemish painter, 1591–1667) Game with Fortune Teller Detail

Nicolas Régnier (Flemish painter, 1591–1667) The Fortune Teller

Jean Valentin de Boulogne (French artist, 1591-1632) Cheerful Company with Fortune Teller Detail

Bonheur Rosa or Georges De La Tour (French artist, 1593-1652) The Fortune Teller

Georges De La Tour (French artist, 1593-1652) Fortune Teller 1632-35

Jan Cossiers (Flemish painter, 1600-1671) Fortune Telling

Antone Pesne (French artist, 1683-1757) Fortune Teller 1710

Jean Antoine Watteau (French artist, 1684-1721) The Fortune Teller

Jean Baptiste Joseph Pater (French artist, 1695-1736) The Fortune Teller

Pietro Longhi (Venetian painter, 1701-1785)  The Fortune Teller Detail

Joshua Reynolds (English artist, 1723-1797) Young Fortune Teller

Pietro Longhi (Venetian painter, 1701-1785) The Fortune Teller Detail

Joshua Reynolds (English artist, 1723-1797) The Gypsy Fortune Teller

Pietro Longhi (Venetian painter, 1701-1785) A Fortune Teller at Venice 1756 Detail

Francois Joseph Navez (Belgian artist, 1787-1869) The Fortune Teller

David White (Scottish artist, 1785-1841)  Josephine and the Fortune Teller

William Sidney Mount (American artist, 1807-1868) Dregs in the Cup Fortune Telling 1838

Diaz de la Pena Narcisse (French artist, 1807-1896) Gipsies Listening tho the Prophecies of a Fortune Teller

Abraham Solomon (English artist, 1824-1862) Doubtful Fortune

Henry John van Lennep (American artist, 1815–1889) Gypsy Fortune Teller

Platt Powell Ryder (American artist, 1821-1896) The Tale of the Cup

Edward John Poynter (British artist, 1836-1919) The Fortune Teller

Frederic Bazille (French artist, 1841-1870) The Fortune Teller 1869

Edouard Frederic Wilhelm Richter (French artist, 1844-1913) The Fortune Teller

Jean Georges Vibert (French artist, 1840-1902) The Fortune Teller

Winslow Homer (American artist, 1836-1910) Shall I Tell Your Fortune 1876

Luca Sacco (American artist, 1858–1912) The Fortune Teller

Nikolaos Gyzis (Greek artist, 1842-1901) The Fortune Teller

Edgar Degas (French artist, 1834-1917) Mary Cassatt With Cards 1888

Robert Loftin Newman (American artist, 1827-1912)   The Fortune Teller 1894

Frances Hodgkins (New Zealand artist, 1869-1947) Fortune Teller 1896

Thomas Wilmer Dewing (American artist, 1851-1938)  The Fortune Teller

Alfons Spring (German artist, 1843-1908) The Fortune Teller

Colin Campbell Cooper (American painter, 1856-1937)  Fortune Teller 1921

Helene Schjerfbeck (Finnish artist, 1862-1946) ) The Fortune-Teller (Woman in Yellow Dress), 1926

Tamara de Lempicka (Polish Art Deco artist,  Russia 1898–1980 Mexico) The Fortune Teller
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