Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1880-1938


1906 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Doris with a Ruffled Collar

1909 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Dodo with a Japanese Umbrella
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938) was one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or "The Bridge", a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism in 20th century art. He volunteered for German army service in the First World War, but soon suffered a breakdown & was discharged. In 1933, his work was branded as "degenerate" by the Nazis. In 1937, he was asked for his resignation from the Berlin Academy of Arts, & over 600 of his works were confiscated from public museums in Germany & were sold or destroyed. In 1938, he committed suicide. ( written by Barbara Wells Sarudy )

1909-10 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Marzella

1910 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Self Portrait with Model

1910 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938)

1910 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Artiste Marcella

1910 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Kokottenkopf with Feathered Hat

1911 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Dodo with a Big Feather Hat

1911 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Portrait of a Woman

1912 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Lady in the Park

1913 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Erna Schilling

1913 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Five Women at the Street

1913 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Japanese Parasol

1913 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Street, Berlin

1913 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Two Women with Basin

1913 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Woman in a Green Blouse

1913-14 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Berlin Street Scene

1913-20 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Woman before a Mirror

1914 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Gerda

1914 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Dancing Couple

1914 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Portrait of Gerda

1914 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) The Garden Cafe

1915 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Erna with Cigarette

1916 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Königstein with Red Church

1918 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Pink Roses

1922 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Sunday in the Alps

1926 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Street Scene in front of a Barbershop

1927 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) The Lovers

1927 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Women on Street

1927-29 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Two Women in a Cafe

1928-29 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Sad Female Head

1930 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Lovers (The Kiss)

1932-33 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist, 1880-1938) Two Acrobats

Todd A. Williams (Nebraska)


Eine Geschichte von Croquet & seine Fashions 17C-19C aus Europa und England nach Amerika ( written by Barbara Wells Sarudy )


Johann Mongles Culverhouse (Dutch-born American painter, 1825-1895) Croquet

Croquet is, like pall mall, trucco, jeu de mail & kolven, clearly a derivative of ground billiards, which was popular in Western Europe back to at least the 14th century, with roots in classical antiquity.

1650 Peter Lely (English artist, 1618-1680)  The Children of the Markgraaf de Trazegnies

Researchers claim that both golf & croquet evolved from these ancient sports, and that billiards was a modified inside game of croquet.

1650 ‘The Centre of Love, I the land Decouvert Miscellaneous Emblesmes gallant and jocular’ was first published (by Chez Cupid) c 1650.

Some Researchers believe the game was Introduced to Britain from France falling on the reign of Charles II of England, and WAS played under the name of straw-gold mesh pall mall, derived Ultimately from Latin words for “ball and mallet.”

1626 Adrian van de Veen Frederick V, Elector Palatine on the Maliebaen in Den Haag

Played during the 17th century by Charles II & his courtiers at St. James’s Park in London, the name of the game was anglicized to Pall Mall, which also became the name of a nearby street. “Mall” then evolved into a generic word for any street used for public gathering & strollings. 

The Pall Mall at St James, London, from a 17th century map by Faithhorne

In his 1810 book entitled The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England, Joseph Strutt describes the way pall mall was played in England in the early 17th century: “Pale-maille is a game wherein a round box ball is struck with a mallet through a high arch of iron, which he that can do at the fewest blows, or at the number agreed upon, wins. It is to be observed, that there are two of these arches, that is one at either end of the alley.” 

David Johnson (American artist, 1827-1908) Croquet on the Lawn

In Samuel Johnson’s 1828 dictionary, he defines the game, “A play in which the ball is struck with a mallet through an iron ring.”

 Winslow Homer (American artist, 1836-1910)  Croquet
A similar game was played on the beaches of Brittany.  Some researches believe that the rules of the modern game of croquet arrived from Ireland during the 1850s, perhaps after being brought there from Brittany. Records show the similar game of “crookey” being played at Castlebellingham in 1834, which was introduced to Galway in 1835 & played on the bishop’s palace garden, and in the same year to the genteel Dublin suburb of Kingstown (today Dún Laoghaire) where it was first spelled “croquet.” 

Winslow Homer (American artist, 1836-1910) Croquet Players

The oldest document to bear the word “croquet” with a description of the modern game is the set of rules registered by Isaac Spratt in November 1856 with the Stationers’ Company in London. 

1866 The Game of Croquet Published by Harper’s Weekly. 1866 detail

The tale is that the game traveled from Ireland to England around 1851.  An unidentified Miss MacNaghten observed peasants in France playing a game with hoops made of willow rods & mallets of broomsticks inserted into pieces of wood & introduced it in Ireland.  Sometime around 1850, she passed the idea to a Mr. Spratt and the result was Spratt’s rules for croquet published in 1851.  Spratt then passed the game on to John Jacques; who claimed that he made equipment from patterns he bought in Ireland & had published rules, before Spratt introduced the subject to him.  Whatever the case, Jacques was the first to make equipment as a regular business; and in 1864, published his first comprehensive code of laws.  

1870 Croquet Published in
Every Saturday An Illustrated Journal of choice Reading, BostonAt first, croquet was most popular among women,  It was a new experience for them to be able to play a game outdoors in the company of men.  Early games of croquet were carefully chaperoned.   The game’s popularity grew in the 1860’s, where garden parties began to be called croquet parties. 

1870 Croqueting the Rover.

Published in Every Saturday An Illustrated Journal of Choice Reading. Boston1868 saw the formation of the All England Croquet Club with the purpose of creating an official body to control the game and unify the laws.  They needed to find a ground, and in 1869 leased four acres in Wimbledon.  

1871 Preparing for Croquet published in Harper’s Weekly, New York, July 22, 1871.

In 1875, one lawn at the club was set aside for exciting new game of lawn tennis, which was gaining popularity much more quickly than croquet.  In April, 1877 the club name was changed to the All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club; and in July, 1877 the first lawn tennis championship was held at Wimbledon.  

1872 The Last Croquet Game of the Summer published in Harper’s Bazar, New York, Nov. 2, 1872.

Croquet began to decline as tennis grew & proved to be more of a money maker.  In 1882, croquet was deleted from the club title.  However, croquet continued & went through a regrowth.  In 1899, the name was restyled again to to the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club which it remains today. 


While croquet was on the decline in England, it was beginning to be the latest rage in America. Croquet equipment was advertised in the New York Clipper in 1862.  In a story of an elopment in the November, 1864 issue of Godey’s Ladies Book, they described the intended bride, “her petite figure and dove-like eyes caused her at once to become “the rage of the park, the ball-room, the opera, and the croquet lawn.” In 1865, the Newport Croquet Club was formed in Rhode Island.  The April 1865, Godey’s Ladies Book published a few rules for the game declaring, “As this game is now becoming very fashionable, we give some of the rules that govern it.” 

1862 John Leech (English artist, 1817-1864) Croquet

When Vassar College opened , an announcement Godey’s Lady’s Book. August, 1865, stated, “The play-grounds are ample and secluded; and the apparatus required for…such simple feminine sports as archery, croquet (or ladies’ cricket), graces, shuttlecocks, etc. will be supplied by the college.”  In the same issue, the magazine explained, “A NEW
and fashionable amusement for the ladies may be found in the game of croquet , which is fast winning its way into the favor and esteem of all who make its acquaintance. It is a delightful game; it gives grace to the movements of the players; it can be played on any little grass-plot, and the implements of the game are becoming so cheap as to place them within the reach of all. Boys and girls, young men and maidens, and (as we do know), a good many older ones, find in it a most healthful and fascinating out-door recreation.”  Two months later, the magazine noted, “Among the late novelties we notice pocket-handkerchiefs having a lady in croquet dress with mallet in hand, embroidered in gay colors in the corner.”

1865 John Leech (English artist, 1817-1864) A Nice Game For Two Or More

By April of the next year, Godey’s was featuring a croquet dress in one of its fashion plates, “Croquet dress of black alpaca, trimmed round the edge of the skirt, up the front, and up each breadth, with bands of green silk cut out in points. The basque is made quite long, slit up to the waist at the back, and turned over with green silk both back and front. The sleeves are trimmed with points of green silk to match the skirt, and the corsage is turned back, in revers, showing a fine worked chemisette. Hat of black straw, trimmed with a puffing of green silk, and a long white plume.” 

1867 Philip Hermogenes Calderon (French-born English painter,1833-1898) Resting in the Shade after a game of Croquet

Milton Bradley & Co in 1866, published “Croquet – It’s Principles and Rules.” In February of 1867, Godey’s explaned that croquet, “requires for its full development a level ground of well-mown and well-rolled grass (unless all are equally acquainted with the inequalities, when slight undulations may add to the interest of the game); but it can be played on the sand of the sea-shore where it is hard and level, or upon well-rolled grave, or asphalte covered with a thin layer of fine broken shells.” 

John Sartain (1808-1897) Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885), the 18th President of the United States (1869-1877) with his familyLater in 1867, a New York newspaper editorialized, “never in the history of outdoor sports in this country had any game achieved so sudden a popularity with both sexes, but especially with the ladies, as Croquet has.”

1870 The All-England Croquet Club at Wimbledon Ladies Sport Croquet Illustrated London News

The Delaware County Republican newspaper of July 10, 1868. carried an announcement of a variety of wooden croquet sets for sale, “BOX WOOD, Rose Wood, Lignum Vitae, Rock Maple, and less expensive sets of Croquet Games.” By 1869, churches were offering croquet to their guests. The Delaware County American announced on June 2, 1869, next to the Maple Church, “a strawberry and ice cream FESTIVAL, provided and served by ladies…a Concert, Vocal and Instrumental …also, a croquet lawn, with the requisite conveniences.” When the strawberries ripened the following June, the church ladies once again offered their festival including croquet. The popularity of croquet was growing by leaps and bounds in post Civil War America.

1871 Edouard Manet (French painter, 1832-1883) Part of Croquet at Boulogne-sur-Mer  

In 1882 a convention in New York of 25 clubs Formed the National American Croquet Association. Croquet WAS Introduced as an Olympic Sport in the 1900 Paris games. Early 1900 American croquet leaders disagreed with; many of the new English rules All which outlawed mallets with heads made ​​of rubber & HAD Introduced the six-wicket short layout. They Kept the nine-wicket Version & Short Handled mallets with heads of metal face on one end and rubber on the other. The Americans Introduced Their Version of 9-wicket croquet at the 1904 Olympics in St. Louis All which was won by an American but never played in the Olympics again. 

1871 The Illustrated London News  Croquet Under Difficulties.

1872 Abbéma Louise (1853-1927), A Game of Croquet at Trouville

1875 Oneida Community, New York

Winslow Homer (American artist, 1836-1910) Croquet Scene

1872 Part Of Croquet, engraving by Paul Girardet

1873 Edouard Manet (French painter, 1832-1883)  The Croquet Game

1876 James H Holly Residence, Warwick, NY

1873 John George Brown (American genre artist, 1831-1913) Have a Game

John E Williams Residence, Irvington, NY

1873 Never Too Old To Play Croquet Nor Yet Too Young  August Published for Harper’s Weekly, New York

1876 A game of croquet on the front lawn of Perry Guile’s house in Milo, New York

1878 James Tissot (French artist, 1836-1902) Croquet

Prince and Princess of Wales playing croquet The Illustrated London News

1880 Valentine showing a woman playing croquet

1885 A game of croquet without rules. Harper’s Young People.

1889 Leon Benett, Fortune Louis Méaulle Croquet

1892 Pierre Bonnard (French painter, 1867-1947)  Crespuscule or Part Croquet

1901 Seaside Games

1904 Anna Whelan Betts (American illustrator, 1875–1952) Croquet

1915 Chatterbox Magazine

Percy W. Gibbs (English Painter, active c 1895-1925)  Ladies playing croquet

Victorian Trading Card Girl Playing Croquet Walkers Wax Soap in Sleeve

William Crawford Arsa (Scottish paintre, 1825-69). Eliza Anne Lochart (Nana), William Frederick (Bill) and John Henry Middleton playing croquet in a garden before a cornfield

William McGregor Paxton (American painter, 1869-1941) The Croquet Players

Croquet Fashions for players and observersCroquet grew in popularity with women during the 1860s; however, the sport was hampered by their heavy, full skirts & the crinolines worn underneath.  Many women took to looping up their skirts to prevent soiling them or brushing against the croquet balls. Designers began to have the exposed petticoats develop tabs to button up the skirts, & the hems on croquet dresses became increasingly bold & decorative. In 1864, one croquet player advised, “the dress should be looped up, or not only will it spoil many a good stroke, but with its sweeping train will probably disturb the position of some of the balls.” 

1860s Walking and croquet dress, Le Diable Rose

1865 September fashions, 1865 France, Cendrillon
1866 Godey’s fashions for [April 1866] Kimmel & Forster N.Y.

1870 Les modes parisiennes Peterson’s Magazine, July, 1870.

1881 American Fashion Croquet Dresses

1883 Childrens Country Costumes from The Queen.

Le Monde Elegant

Photo of Croquet Players 1860s

verschiedene Künster–berühmte Mond-Bilder


Thomas Buttersworth (1768-1842) Smugglers and Revenue Cutter

Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)

Winslow Homer (1836-1910) Searchlight on the Harbor Entrance Santiago de Cuba

Vincent van Gogh (Dutch artist, 1853-1890) Starry-Night.

Frederick Childe Hassam (1859-1935) Moonlight on the Sound

Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900) Moonrise

Georgia O’Keeffe (1887-1986) Ladder to the Moon

Samuel Palmer (British artist, 1805-1881) Harvest Moon

Henri Rousseau (1844-1910) Sleeping Gypsy

Henri Rousseau (1844-1910) Carnival Evening

Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), On the River Tyne

Claude-Joseph Vernet (1714-1789) Evening Seascape

Edvard Munch (1863-1944)

Emil Carlsen (1853-1932) Moonlilt Seascape

Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851) Snow Storm, Hannibal and his Army Crossing the Alps 1812

Paul Klee (1879-1940)

Georgia O’Keeffe (1887-1986)

George Caleb Bingham (1811-1879) Wood-Boatmen on a River

Henri Julien Rousseau (1844-1910) Jungle with Lion

Winslow Homer (1836-1910) Kissing the Moon

Gustaw Gwozdecki (1880-1935) Moon

George Inness (1825-1894) Harvest Moon

Joan Miro (1893-1983)

Sebastian Pether (1790-1844) A Moonlit Cove

Maria Hadfield Cosway (1759-1838) Girl Dancing by the Sea

Odilon Redon (1840-1916) Boat in the Moonlight

Marc Chagall (1887-1985)

Vincent Willem van Gogh (1853-1890) Evening Landscape With Rising Moon

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938)

Samuel Palmer (British painter, 1805-1881) Harvest Moon

René François Ghislain Magritte (1898-1967)

Winslow Homer (1836-1910) Moonlight

Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917)

Marc Chagall (1887-1985) Lovers In Moon

Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917) Toilers of the Sea

Alfred Stevens (1823-1906) Moonlit Seascape

Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840) Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon c. 1824

Charles Henry Gifford (1839-1904) Battersea Bridge, London

Charles-François Daubigny (1817-1878) Moonrise 1877

Claude Monet (1840-1926) Charing Cross Bridge, Fog on the Thames

Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851) Fishermen at Sea c 1796

Georges Rouault (1871-1958)

Thomas Cole (1801-1848) Expulsion – Moon and Firelight

Jean-François Millet (1814-1875) The Shepherd at the Fold by Moonlight

Hendrik Avercamp (Dutch artist, 1585-1634) Fishermen at Moonlight 1625

1711 Donato Creti (Italian 1671-1749) Astronomical Observations The Moon


1482 Sandro Botticelli (Italian artist, 1445-1510) Primavera, or Allegory of Spring Detail

 Walther von der Vogelweide
(um 1170 – 1230)

Frühling und Frauen
Wenn die Blumen aus dem Grase dringen,
Gleich als lachten sie zur hellen Sonne,
Des Morgens früh an einem Maientag,
Wenn die kleinen Vöglein munter singen,
Ihre schönsten Weisen, welche Wonne
An solche Lust dann wohl noch reichen mag?
Halb gleicht’s wohl schon dem Himmelreiche;
Soll ich nennen aber, was ihm gleiche,
So weiß ich, was mein Auge je
Noch mehr entzückt hat und auch stets
entzücken wird, wenn ich es seh’.
Wo ein edles Fräulein, hold zu schauen,
Wohl gekleidet und das Haar geschmücket,
Sich unter Leuten heitern Sinns ergeht,
Sittsam froh, vereint mit andern Frauen,
Nur zuweilen etwas um sich blicket
Und wie die Sonne über Sternen steht:
Da bring’ der Mai uns alle Wunder,
Was wohl wär’ so Wonnereiches drunter,
Als ihr viel minniglicher Leib?
Wir lassen alle Blumen steh’n
und schau’n nur an das schöne Weib.
Nun wohlan, wollt ihr die Wahrheit schauen,
Geh’n wir zu des Maien Jubelfeste,
Der jetzt ins Land mit allen Kräften kam!
Schaut ihn an und sehet schöne Frauen,
Was von beiden da wohl sei das beste,
Und sagt, ob ich das bess’re Teil nicht nahm?
Ach, wenn mich einer wählen hieße,
Daß ich eines für das andre ließe,
Wie bald doch wär’ die Wahl gescheh’n!
Herr Mai, Ihr möchtet März sein, eh’
ich sollt’ von meiner Herrin geh’n!

ah chee lo a young indian child it was taken in 1905

Thank you wretchedshekels for this blog


Ah Chee Lo, a young indian child – 1905

This is a fascinating collection of Native American Indian photographs from the turn  of the last century!  Several tribes are represented in this collection: Sioux, Walapai, Brule, Arikara and Tluwulahu.  Such a stoic people, I believe that there is a lot to be learned from lives that were led so simply.  While I look to god for my spiritual and worldly guidance, I do believe there is a lot to glean from these “simple” people.  There lives were anything but simple, the thought of living from the land, every minute of every day, really gives me pause.  I want to give credit for these spectacular photos, the clarity of old film just cannot be duplicated by a digital memory!  All of these photos were originally shot by Edward S. Curtis and can be found on this website:

Little Hawk, a Brule Warrior. It was taken in 1907 Little…

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Ladies with parasols

Richard Edward or Emil Miller (American artist, 1875-1943) Woman with Parasol
Here are a few women with parasols by American artists, although you will notice that at least one was painting in Nice, when the parasol craze hit struck him.  I wish I were in Nice right now, a truly lovely town of beaches & boats & fountains & flea markets.

Frank W. Benson (American artist, 1862-1951) The Reader
Robert Lewis Reid (1862-1939), Lady with a Parasol

Edward Cucuel (American artist, 1879-1954) Young girl with Parasol
Alberta Binford McCloskey (American artist, 1863–1911) Eleanor, the Artist’s Daughter
Edward Horace Nicholson (American artist, 1901–1966) Lady with Umbrella
Ethel Mars (American artist, 1876–1956) Nice

Edward Cucuel (American artist, 1879-1954) In the Rose Garden

Richard Edward or Emil Miller (American artist, 1875-1943) Afternoon Tea

Edward Cucuel (American artist, 1879-1954) Picking Flowers
Ethel Mars (American artist, 1876–1956) Umbrella
Guy Rose (American artist, 1867–1925) The Model
Hamilton Hamilton (American artist, 1847–1928) A Gust of Wind
Hamilton Hamilton (American artist, 1847–1928) Lady with a Parasol
Hamilton Hamilton (American artist, 1847–1928) Stroll through the Garden
Jean Mannheim (American artist, 1861–1945) Lonely Tea Party
Lillian Mathilde Genth (American artist, 1876–1953) Summer Morning
Lucy Drake Marlow (American artist, 1890–1978) Parasol
Susan Ricker Knox (American artist, 1874–1959) In Lilac Time
William John Hennessy (American artist, 1839–1917) The Japanese Parasol

Childe Hassam (American artist, 1859-1935) 5th Avenue at Washington Square

Donna Norine Schuster (American artist, 1883-1953) On the Beach

Enoch Wood Perry (American painter, 1831-1913) Portrait of Prescott and Mary Scott 1881

Jacob Maentel (American artist, 1778–) Girl with a Green Umbrellas 1835

Maurice Brazil Prendergast (North American artist, 1859-1924) Figures under the Flag

Portraits of Women Painting – Born in the 1800s



1819 Jerichau Baumann (Danish artist, 1819-1881) Self Portrait

1825 Emma Gaggiotti Richards (English painter, 1825-1912) Self Portrait 1853

1840 Bertha Wegmann, Portrait of Jeanna Bauck, Jeanna Maria Charlotta Bauck (German artist, 1840-1926)

1841 Berthe Morisot (French artist, 1841-1895) Self-Portrait 1885

1844 Marie Spartali Stillman (English artist, 1844-1927) Self Portrait

1844 Mary Cassatt (American artist, 1844-1926). Self Portrait 1880

1848 Lilla Cabot Perry (American artist, 1848-1933) Self Portrait 1889-96

1850 Mary Sympson Tovey Christison (English portrait painter, 1850-1879) Self Portrait

1856 Anna Elizabeth Klumpke (American artist, 1856–1942) Portrait of Rosa Bonheur (1822–1899)

1857 Alice Pike Barney (American artist, 1857–1931) Self Portrait

1857 Alice Pike Barney (American artist, 1857–1931) Self Portrait

1857 Anna Bilińska-Bohdanowicz (Polish painter, 1857–1893) Self-Portrait with Apron and Brushes, 1887

1857 Anna Bilińska-Bohdanowicz (Polish painter, 1857–1893) Self Portrait

1858 Marie Bashkirtseff (Ukranian-born French artist, 1858-1884) Self-Portrait with a Palette, c 1883

1858 Marie Bashkirtseff (Ukranian-born French artist, 1858-1884) The Women’s Studio 1881

1860 Elisabeth Nourse (American painter, 1860-1938) Self-Portrait, 1892

1861 Ethel Walker (British painter, 1861-1951) Self Portrait

1861 Elin Kleopatra Danielson-Gambogi (Finnish painter, 1861-1919) Self-Portrait, 1900

1863 Hanna Hirsch-Pauli, Portrait of Artist Venny Soldan-Brofeldt (Finnish painter, 1863-1945) Self Portrait  c 1887

1865 Alina Bondy Glassowa (Ukrainian painter,1865-1935) Self Portrait

1866 Emily Maria Eardley Childers (English artist, 1866–1922), Self-Portrait, 1889

1866 Lydia Field Emmet (American artist, 1866-1952) Self Portrait

1870 Dora Wahlroos (Finnish artist, 1870-1947) Self Portrait

1870 Lucia Mathews (American artist, 1870-1955) Self Portrait

1871 Martha Susan Baker (American artist, 1871-1911) Self Portrait

1871 Martha Susan Baker (American artist, 1871-1911) Self Portrait 

1872 Alice Bailly (Swiss artist, 1872-1938) Self Portrait

1875 Margaret Preston (Australian artist, 1875–1963) Self Portrait  1930

1876 Luisa Vidal Puig (Spanish artist, 1876-1918) Self Portrait

1876 Mabel Dwight (American artist, 1876-1955) Self-Portrait 1932

1876 Maria Mela (Melania) Muter (Mutermilch) (Polish-French artist, 1876-1967) Self Portrait

1877 Gabriele Münter (German impressionist, 1877–1962) Self Portrait  1909

1877 Laura Knight (British artist, 1877-1970) Self-portrait

1878 Gertrude Horsford Fiske (American painter, 1878-1961) Self Portrait

1879 Robert Harris Portrait of Helen MakNikoll Galloway (Canadian painter, 1879-1915) 1910

1881 Margaret Foster Richardson (American artist, 1881-1945) Self Portrait

1884 Zinaida Yevgenyevna Serebriakova (Russian artist, 1884-1967) Self Portrait 1921

1884 Zinaida Yevgenyevna Serebriakova (Russian artist, 1884-1967) Self Portrait 1938

1884 Zinaida Yevgenyevna Serebriakova (Russian artist, 1884-1967) Self Portrait 1956

1884 Zinaida Yevgenyevna Serebriakova (Russian artist, 1884-1967) Self Portrait

1887 Noel Laura Nisbet (British painter, 1887-1956) Self Portrait

1889 Hilda Carline (English artist, 1889-1950) Self-Portrait 1923

1889 Willard Leroy Metcalf (American Impressionist Painter, 1858-1925) Lois Wilcox (American artist, 1889-1958) Here at age 15

1891 Mabel Alvarez (American artist, 1891-1985) Self Portrait

1898 Lotte Laserstein (German artist, 1898-1990) Self Portrait

1898 Lotte Laserstein (German artist, 1898-1990) Self Portrait

1898 Lotte Laserstein (German artist, 1898-1990) Self Portrait

1898 Lotte Laserstein (German artist, 1898-1990) Self Portrait 1938

1898 Lotte Laserstein (German artist, 1898-1990) Two Women 1928

Lotte Laserstein (German artist, 1898-1990) My Only Reality (Self Portrait painting)

1899 Alice Endresz (Hungarian painter, 1899-19–)

The New Western Woman of the 1920s



1919 Niklaus Stoecklin (Swiss artist, 1896-1982) Nelly
While I was looking at the change over time in the depiction of women with veils, it struck me that it was not just the clothing or the artist’s styles that had changed. It was the attitude of the women. They were more independent and more self assured. It was 1920, after all, and American women were just getting to vote in national elections for the 1st time since 1776. But the change I saw was fairly universal across Europe and the other Western countries. Here are a few of those confident new women, young and old. (Barbara Wells Sarudy )

1920 Kees van Dongen (Dutch painter, 1877-1968) Jasmy Jacob

1920 Greta Hällfors-Sipilä, (Finish artist, 1899-1974) Self Portrait

1920 Shalva Kikodze (Georgian Expressionist painter, 1894–1921) Artists’ Coffee House in Paris

1920 Walter Gramatté, (German artist, 1897-1932) Portrait Rosa Schapire

1920 William Glackens (American Ashcan School Painter, 1870-1938) Finnish Woman

1920s Marie-Louise von Motesiczky (Austrian painter, 1906-1996) Self-Portrait with Red Hat

1921 Jozsef Rippl-Ronai (Hungarian artist, 1861-1927) Zdenka Ticharich

1922 Felice Casorati (Italian Painter, 1883-1963) Portrait of Silvana Cenni

1922 Félix Vallotton (Swiss-born French painter, 1865-1925) La liseuse

1922 Ubaldo Oppi (Italian artist, 1889-1942) La giovane sposa

1923 Albert Birkle (German artist, 1900-1986) Elisabeth Starosta mit Chiffon-Bluse und Hut

1923 Tarsila do Amaral (Brazilian artist, 1886-1973) Self Portrait

1923 Hilda Carline (English artist, 1889-1950) Self-Portrait

1923 Camilo Mori (Chilean Painter, 1896-1973) The Traveller

1923 Jan Zrzavy (Czech artist, 1890-1977) Kavarna

1923 Jean Metzinger (French artist, 1883-1956) Jeune femme pensive aux roses rouges

1923 Jozsef Rippl-Ronai (Hungarian artist, 1861-1927) Terka Linzer

1923 Pablo Picasso (Spanish artist, 1881-1973) Olga Pensive

1923 Rudolf Schlichter (German artist, 1890-1955) Woman with Tie

1924 Max Beckmann (German artist, 1884-1950), Portrait Minna Beckmann-Tube

1925 Georg Schrimpf (German artist, 1889-1938) Woman on a Couch

1925 Georg Tappert (German artist, 1880-1957) Girl with the Flat Hat

1925 Margaret Preston (Australian artist, 1875 – 1963) Flapper

1925 Max Pechstein (German Expressionist Painter, 1881-1955) Modellpause

1925 Jacques-Emile Blanche (French painter, 1861-1942) Mademoiselle Georgette Camille

1925 John Duncan Fergusson (Scottish artist, 1874-1961) In the Patio Margaret Morris Fergusson

1925 Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz (Polish artist, 1885-1939) Portrait of Maria Nawrocka

1925 Francisco Pons Arnau, Confidencias

1926 Rudolf Schlichter (German artist, 1890-1955) Berlin Hausvogteiplatz

1926 Otto Dix, Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia von Harden

1926 Théophile Robert (Swiss artist, 1879-1954), Lady in Black Dress

1927 Antonio Donghi (Italian Painter, 1897-196)] Signorina

1927 Christian Schad, Lotte

1927 Lasar Segall (Lithuanian-born Brazilian painter, 1891-1957) Retrato de Baby de Almeida

1928 Conrad Felixmüller, Bildnis Jutta Kirchhoff

1928 Manfred Hirzel (Polish-born German painter, 1905-1932). Portrait of Rosi Mein

1928 Herbert Ploberger, Vor dem Schaufenster

1928 Meredith Frampton (British Art Deco Painter, 1894-1984) Marguerite Kelsey

1929 Alexander Kanoldt (German painter, 1881-1939) The Red Belt

1929 Marcel Ronay (Austrian artist, 1910-1998) Sailor and Girl

1929 Niklaus Stoecklin (Swiss artist, 1896-1982) Tatjana Barbakoff

1929 Rudolf Schlichter (German artist, 1890-1955) Karola Neher

1929 Vilmos Aba-Novák (Hungarian artist, 1894-1941) Laura

Fritz Reusing (German artist, 1874-1957) Portrait of a Smoking Lady 1927

Model, artist, muse, lover, & mother of an artist Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938)

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) c 1889

2009 Exhibit at the Pinacothéque de Paris

Mother Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) and Son Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon (1883-1955) c 1889
In 2009, the Pinacothéque de Paris presented an exhibit of paintings by mother & son artists Suzanne Valadon (1865–1938) & Maurice Valadon Utrillo (1883-1955). Theirs is a complicated tale.

Suzanne Valadon was born Marie-Clémentine Valadon in France.

Mother Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) and Son Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon (1883-1955)
She was the daughter of an unmarried laundress & was raised in Paris in bleak, lonely, & unaffectionate circumstances.

Photo of Suzanne Valadon
She apparently taught herself to draw by age 9. As a very young woman she worked as a laundress & a dressmaker’s assistant.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) 1926
Suzanne Valadon became a circus acrobat at the age of 15, but a year later, a fall from a trapeze ended that career aspiration.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon (1883-1955)
A strikingly beautiful girl, she found work as an artists’ model to observe & learn the artists’ techniques.

[Barbara Wells Sarudy ]

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Self Portrait 1883
In the Montmartre quarter of Paris, she agressively pursued her interest in art, first working as a model for artists, observing & learning their techniques, before becoming a noted painter herself.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) Profile of Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) 1885
In order to separate the painter from the model, Valadon, whose given name was Marie-Clementine, worked as a model using the name Maria. As an artist, she signed her work Suzanne Valadon. She apparently adopted the new name to delineate her new & separate role as an artist.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) The Bathers, 1885–87
She modeled for Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (who gave her painting lessons), Amedeo Modigliani, Marcel Leprin, Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, & Pierre-Cécile Puvis de Chavannes.

Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre (1824-98) Untitled painting of Suzanne Valadon 1880
She is known to have had affairs with serveral of these artists, including Lautrec, Renoir, and Chavannes.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Self Portrait 1898
Although she could not afford formal classes, Valadon learned readily & absorbed the techniques of the painters around her.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Portrait of her Son Maurice Utrillo (1883-1955), her Mother & his Grandmother and his Dog, 1910
Toulouse-Lautrec, who was romantically involved with Suzanne, brought her work to the attention of Edgar Degas.

Edgar Degas (1834-1917) Le Tab model Suzanne Valadon
Degas talked with her at great length and bought one of her paintings the day they first met. He consistantly encouraged her to develop her artistic talent.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Self Portrait 1917
Degas also helped her learn, teaching her drawing and etching techniques. At age 18, she became the mother of painter Maurice Valadon Utrillo, his father remains unknown.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Self Portrait 1918
By the early 1890s, she had became close friends with the famous Edgar Degas who, impressed with her bold line drawings & fine paintings, continued to purchase her work & encourage her efforts. They remained close friends until his death.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Self Portrait
Valadon frequented the bars & taverns of Paris along with her fellow painters, who would come and go as lovers, & a rejected Toulouse-Lautrec painted her with a hangover.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Self Portrait
A free spirit in many respects, she would wear a corsage of carrots, kept a goat at her studio to “eat up her bad drawings”, & fed caviar (rather than meat) to her “good Catholic” cats on Fridays.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Said to be Self Portrait
In 1894, Valadon became the 1st woman painter admitted to the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. All the artists knew her and her work.
Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Said to be Self Portrait 1934
Despite her financial success & the recognition gained for her artistic achievements, her fame was eclipsed by that of her son. She gave birth to the boy in 1883, & never divulging the identity of his father, she named him Maurice Valadon. He later adopted the paternal family name of a close friend of his mother, Miguel Utrillo y Morlius, who owned the Auberge du Clou, a tavern frequented by the residents, shop owners, workers, & artists of Montmartre.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) City Dance (Suzanne Valadon and Eugène Pierre Lestringuez) 1883
After being taught to paint & mentored by his mother, as Maurice Utrillo, he became one of Montmartre’s best-known street scene artists.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) Dance at Bougival (Suzanne Valadon and Paul Lhote) 1883
Among her works is a portrait of the composer Erik Satie, with whom she had a six-month affair in 1893. A smitten Satie proposed marriage after their first night together.

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Portrait of Composer Erik Satie (1866-1925) c.1892
For Satie, the intimacy of his relationship with Valadon would be the only one of its kind in his life, leaving him at its end, he said, with “nothing but an icy loneliness that fills the head with emptiness & the heart with sadness.”

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Portrait of Suzanne Valadon
In 1896, she married Paul Mousis; & the financial support of her well-to-do investor & banker husband allowed her to work full-time as an artist.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) Girl Braiding Her Hair Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) 1885
Valadon painted still life, portraits, floral art, & landscapes that are noted for their strong composition & vibrant colors.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Portrait of Suzanne Valadon
For her portraits, she disregarded convention painting both beautiful & homely women, clothed & nude, from working class communities.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) Portrait of Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) 1885
Her use of color and her bold representations of female sexuality challenged the traditional male constructions of femininity. The women in her portraits would not be passive sexual objects. They would not assume conventional, seductive poses.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) Portrait of Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) The Hangover 1888
A perfectionist, she worked on some of her oil paintings for up to 13 years, before showing them publically.

Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen (1859-1923), Suzanne Valadon
Valadon’s 1896 marriage to stockbroker Paul Mousis ended when, in 1909, she left him for a painter half her age, André Utter (1886–1948), who was a friend of her son Maurice Utrillo. But that marriage did not run smoothly either.

Amedeo Modigliani (1884-1920) Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938)
Her first one-person show, after leaving her stockbroker husband, seems to have taken place in 1911, although some claim that the year was 1915. This public exhibit of Valadon’s paintings attracted critical acclaim & numerous patrons.
Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon (1883-1955) Portrait of His Mother Suzanne Valadon By the end of the 1st World War, she achieved critical & financial success. She continued to exhibit regularly, reaching the peak of her fame in the 1920s. Suzanne Valadon had 4 major retrospective exhibitions during her lifetime.

Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen (1859-1923), Suzanne Valadon
In her final years she was usually estranged from both Utter & Utrillo, & her health was ruined by the excesses of her life. Suzanne Valadon died on 7 April 1938, & in attendance at her funeral were her friends & colleagues, Andre Derain, Pablo Picasso, & Georges Braque.

Marcel Leprin (1891-1933) Suzanne Valadon and her Cat

Mother Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) and Son Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon (1883-1955)

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938) Self Portrait 1931

Suzanne Valadon (1865-1938)