William-Adolphe Bouguereau (November 30, 1825 – August 19, 1905) was a French academic painter. William Bouguereau (French pronunciation: [vijɑ̃ buɡøʁo]) was a traditionalist whose realistic genre paintings and mythological themes were modern interpretations of Classical subjects with a heavy emphasis on the female human body.
Life and career
William-Adolphe Bouguereau was born in La Rochelle, France on November 30, 1825, into a family of wine and olive oil merchants. He seemed destined to join the family business but for the intervention of his uncle Eugène, a Roman Catholic priest, who taught him classical and Biblical subjects, and arranged for Bouguereau to go to high school. Bouguereau showed artistic talent early on and his father was convinced by a client to send him to the École des Beaux-Arts in Bordeaux, where he won first prize in figure painting for a depiction of Saint Roch. To earn extra money, he designed labels for jams and preserves.
Through his uncle, Bouguereau was given a commission to paint portraits of parishioners, and when his aunt matched the sum he earned, Bouguereau went to Paris and became a student at the École des Beaux-Arts. To supplement his formal training in drawing, he attended anatomical dissections and studied historical costumes and archeology. He was admitted to the studio of François-Edouard Picot, where he studied painting in the academic style. Academic painting placed the highest status on historical and mythological subjects and Bouguereau won the coveted Prix de Rome in 1850, with his Zenobia Found by Shepherds on the Banks of the Araxes. His reward was a stay at the Villa Medici in Rome, Italy, where in addition to formal lessons he was able to study first-hand the Renaissance artists and their masterpieces.
Bouguereau, painting entirely within the traditional Academic style, exhibited at the annual exhibitions of the Paris Salon for his entire working life.
Detail from The Birth of Venus by Bouguereau (1879).
An early reviewer stated, “M. Bouguereau has a natural instinct and knowledge of contour. The eurythmie of the human body preoccupies him, and in recalling the happy results which, in this genre, the ancients and the artists of the sixteenth century arrived at, one can only congratulate M. Bouguereau in attempting to follow in their footsteps…Raphael was inspired by the ancients…and no one accused him of not being original.”
Raphael was a favorite of Bouguereau and he took this review as a high compliment. He had fulfilled one of the requirements of the Prix de Rome by completing an old-master copy of Raphael’s The Triumph of Galatea. In many of his works, he followed the same classical approach to composition, form, and subject matter. Bouguereau’s graceful portraits of women were considered very charming, partly because he could beautify a sitter while also retaining her likeness.
In 1856, he married Marie-Nelly Monchablon and subsequently had five children. By the late 1850s, he had made strong connections with art dealers, particularly Paul Durand-Ruel (later the champion of the Impressionists), who helped clients buy paintings from artists who exhibited at the Salons.Thanks to Paul Durand-Ruel, Bouguereau met Hugues Merle, who later often was compared to Bouguereau. The Salons annually drew over 300,000 people, providing valuable exposure to exhibited artists. Bouguereau’s fame extended to England by the 1860s, and he bought a large house and studio in Montparnasse with his growing income.
Bouguereau was a staunch traditionalist whose realistic genre paintings and mythological themes were modern interpretations of Classical subjects—both pagan and Christian—with a heavy concentration on the female human body. The idealized world of his paintings, and his almost photo-realistic style, brought to life goddesses, nymphs, bathers, shepherdesses, and madonnas in a way that appealed to wealthy art patrons of the era. Some critics, however, preferred Jean-François Millet’s less-idealized depictions of hard-working farmers and laborers.
Bouguereau employed traditional methods of working up a painting, including detailed pencil studies and oil sketches, and his careful method resulted in a pleasing and accurate rendering of the human form. His painting of skin, hands, and feet was particularly admired. He also used some of the religious and erotic symbolism of the Old Masters, such as the “broken pitcher” which connoted lost innocence.
The Wave (1896)
Bouguereau received many commissions to decorate private houses, public buildings, and churches. As was typical of such commissions, Bouguereau would sometimes paint in his own style, and at other times conform to an existing group style. Early on, Bouguereau was commissioned in all three venues, which added enormously to his prestige and fame. He also made reductions of his public paintings for sale to patrons, of which The Annunciation (1888) is an example. He was also a successful portrait painter and many of his paintings of wealthy patrons remain in private hands.
Bouguereau steadily gained the honors of the Academy, reaching Life Member in 1876, and Commander of the Legion of Honor and Grand Medal of Honor in 1885. He began to teach drawing at the Académie Julian in 1875, a co-ed art institution independent of the École des Beaux-Arts, with no entrance exams and with nominal fees.
In 1877, both his wife and infant son died. At a rather advanced age, Bouguereau was married for the second time in 1896, to fellow artist Elizabeth Jane Gardner Bouguereau, one of his pupils. He used his influence to open many French art institutions to women for the first time, including the Académie française.
Near the end of his life he described his love of his art: “Each day I go to my studio full of joy; in the evening when obliged to stop because of darkness I can scarcely wait for the next morning to come…if I cannot give myself to my dear painting I am miserable”. He painted eight hundred and twenty-six paintings.
In the spring of 1905, Bouguereau’s house and studio in Paris were robbed. On August 19, 1905, Bouguereau died in La Rochelle at the age of 79 from heart disease.
Fame and fall
Tête d’Etude l’Oiseau (1867)
In his own time, Bouguereau was considered to be one of the greatest painters in the world by the Academic art community, and simultaneously he was reviled by the avant-garde. He also gained wide fame in Belgium, Holland, Spain, and in the United States, and commanded high prices.
Bouguereau’s career was a nearly straight up ascent with hardly a setback. To many, he epitomized taste and refinement, and a respect for tradition. To others, he was a competent technician stuck in the past. Degas and his associates used the term “Bouguereauté” in a derogatory manner to describe any artistic style reliant on “slick and artificial surfaces”, also known as a licked finish. In an 1872 letter, Degas wrote that he strove to emulate Bouguereau’s ordered and productive working style, although with Degas’ famous trenchant wit, and the aesthetic tendencies of the Impressionists, it is possible the statement was meant to be ironic.
Bouguereau’s works were eagerly bought by American millionaires who considered him the most important French artist of that time. But after 1920, Bouguereau fell into disrepute, due in part to changing tastes and partly to his staunch opposition to the Impressionists who were finally gaining acceptance. For decades following, his name was not even mentioned in encyclopedias.
 His name
Sources on his full name are contradictory: some[weasel words] give William-Adolphe Bouguereau (composed name), William Adolphe Bouguereau (usual and civil-only names according to the French tradition), while others[weasel words] give Adolphe William Bouguereau (with Adolphe as the usual name). However, the artist used to sign his works simply as William Bouguereau (hinting "William" was his given name, whatever the order), or more precisely as "W.Bouguereau.date" (French alphabet) and later as "W-BOVGVEREAV-date" (Latin alphabet).
Bouguereau’s signature (detail).
 Bouguereau as a teacher
From the 1860s, Bougureau was closely associated with the Académie Julian where he gave lessons and advice to art students, male and female, from around the world. During several decades he taught drawing and painting to hundreds, if not thousands, of students. Many of them managed to establish artistic careers in their own countries, sometimes following his academic style, and in other cases, rebelling against it, like Henri Matisse.
In 1974, the New York Cultural Center staged a show of Bouguereau’s work as a curiosity. In 1984, the Borghi Gallery hosted the commercial show of his 23 oil paintings and 1 drawing. In the same year a major exhibition was organized by the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, in Canada. The exhibition opened at the Musée du Petit-Palais, in Paris, traveled to The Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, and concluded in Montréal. This was the beginning of renewal of interest about Bouguereau. In 1997 Mark Borghi and Laura Borghi organized an early Internet exhibition. Bouguereau present day supporters also include New Jersey millionaire, businessman, and art collector Fred Ross whose internet-based Art Renewal Center heavily features Bouguereau’s work as part of their advocacy for the re-appreciation of academic art. Today, over one hundred museums throughout the world exhibit Bouguereau’s works.
Geburtshaus, Düsseldorf, Bolkerstrasse 53
Bericht eines kritischen Düsseldorfer´s
Eigentlich sind die Düsseldorf immer gern bereit, auf große Söhne und Töchter oder auch prominente Besucher stolz zu sein und ein entsprechendes Theater zu veranstalten. So wollten die Landhauptstädter eine zeitlang gerne glauben, Napoleon habe tatsächlich gesagt: “ Nach der Eroberung Ägyptens war es mein größter Wunsch, Düsseldorf einzunehmen.“ Nur mit ihrem gewitztesten, schlauen und frechsten Spross haben sich die Düsseldorfer lange schwer getan. Und das, obwohl Harry (Heinrich) Heine doch sogar über seine Heimat schrieb:
“ DIE STADT DÜSSELDORF IST SEHR SCHÖN, UND WENN MAN IN DER FERNE AN SIE DENKT,
UND ZUFÄLLIG DORT GEBOREN IST, WIRD EINEM WUNDERLICH ZU MUTHE.
ICH BIN DORT GEBOREN, UND ES IST MIR ALS MÜßTE ICH GLEICH NACH HAUSE GEHEN.
UND WENN ICH SAGE NACH HAUSE GEHEN,
DANN MEINE ICH DIE BOLKERSTRASSE UND DAS HAUS, WORIN ICH GEBOREN BIN….
Nun würden wir ja gerne behaupten können, an dem schwierigen Verhältnis seien erst bloß die preußischen Besatzer schuld gewesen und hinterher dann ortsfremde Nazis. Leider stimmt es nicht so ganz. Auch nach 1945 fand der in Paris heimatlos Gestrandete zuhause wenig Anerkennung. Bis die Düsseldorfer Universität 1989 nach Heinrich Heine benannt werden konnte, leistete sich die Stadt eine 20-jährige, teils peinliche Diskussion. Das können selbst die Düsseldorfer heute kaum glauben.
Leise zieht durch mein Gemüt
Klinge, kleines Frühlingslied,
Kling hinaus ins Weite.
Kling hinaus bis an das Haus,
Wo die Veilchen sprießen!
Wenn du eine Rose schaust,
Sag, ich laß sie grüßen
Kaffee mit Heine
Das Geburtshaus des Dichters Heinrich Heine in der Düsseldorfer Bolkerstraße erstrahlt in neuem Glanz. In nur wenigen Monaten ist hier ein Literaturzentrum mit Café entstanden: das Heine-Haus.
Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Der Dichter Heinrich Heine (Zeichnung von Ludwig Grimm). Unter dem Namen Harry Heine wurde der Dichter am 13. Dezember 1797 als ältester Sohn eines jüdischen Kaufmanns in Düsseldorf geboren. Er blieb bis 1815 in seiner Heimatstadt und kehrte nur zwei Mal kurz zurück, 1819 und 1820 als Student. 1831 ließ er sich in Paris nieder, wo er am 17. Februar 1856 starb.
Von der Kneipe zum Literaturzentrum
Heute, 150 Jahre später, ist das Erdgeschoss im Geburtshaus, wo die Familie Heine ein Geschäft hatte, innerhalb weniger Monate zu einem neuem Literaturzentrum umgebaut worden. Das zuletzt von einer Gaststätte genutzte Heine-Haus in der Düsseldorfer Altstadt beherbergt eine Buchhandlung sowie ein Literaturcafé. Just dort, wo der scharfzüngige Zeitkritiker ("Deutschland, ein Wintermärchen") und populäre Lyriker mit seinen Teddys spielte, sollen Lesungen, literarische Diskussionen oder Ausstellungen für eine "zeitgemäße Würdigung Heines" sorgen, so die Betreiber des neuen Dichterhauses.
Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Ein aufgeschlagenes Exemplar der ersten, 1844 erschienenen Einzelausgabe von Deutschland – Ein Wintermärchen Ein Café liefert dazu die leiblichen Genüsse – auch Heine hat gerne gut gegessen. Von einem Sockel aus 80 originalen Backsteinen, die vom ansonsten kriegszerstörten Haus übrig geblieben sind, blickt eine Bronze-Büste des jugendlichen Dichters auf das geistige und gastronomische Geschehen.
Bisher war das zwischen einem Kebab-Imbiss und einem Irish Pub gelegene schmale Altstadthaus in der Bolkerstraße 53 von einer Bäckerei, später von einem Gastronomiebetrieb und einer Mode-Passage genutzt worden. Heine selbst hatte es schon augenzwinkernd als Pilgerziel Trinkgeld spendender "grünverschleierter vornehmer Engländerinnen" gesehen und in seinen Schriften verewigt. Die Familie Heine hatte bis 1809 Vorder- und Hinterhaus bewohnt.
An eine Heine-Gedenkstätte im herkömmlichen musealen Sinne ist nicht gedacht. Die gibt es bereits in Form des Heinrich-Heine-Instituts, das Museum sowie Gedenk- und Forschungsstätte zugleich ist. Im neuen Heine-Haus sind Besucher eingeladen, die Buchhandlung oder das Café zu besuchen. Beide sind zu den üblichen Geschäftszeiten geöffnet, ein Eintrittsgeld wird nicht erhoben.